Tom of Finland Erotic Art Foundation


Style Sheet
Foundation Conventions


Form: Artwork Display Documentation
Form: Capitalization
Form: Commas, Semicolons and Colons
Form: Copyright
Form: Hyphens, Em dashes and En dashes
Form: Quotations, Parantheses, Brackets, Italics
Logos: Finnish Flag
Logos: Tom of Finland Foundation
Logos: Tag Line (slogan)
Names: Events, Titles and Abbreviations
Names: Military Phoenetic Alphabet
Names: Tom of Finland Foundation & HQ
Names: Website & E-mail


Numbers: Currency
Numbers: Time, Date & Year Representations
Numbers: General
Numbers: Telephone
Numbers: Nonprofit 501(c)(3)
Text & Font Usage

Website: Standards & Procedures

Form: Artwork Display Documentation

Typical display usage:

(Nationality, year born – year died)
Title [or Untitled]
[circa/c.] Year work completed
Catalog number


(Nationality, year born – year died)
Title [or Untitled], [circa/c.] Year work completed
Catalog number


ARTIST, (Nationality, year born – year died), Title [or Untitled], [circa/c.] Year work completed, Medium, Dimensions, Acquisition, [Price], Catalog number, [©]


(Nationality, year born – year died)
Title [or Untitled], [circa/c.] Year work completed
Catalog number

Examples are available here.

Posted 02/06/2009
Form: Capitalization

In text, use upper case for specific geographical identifications such as the following:

The West, the Deep South, the Eastern Shore, the Far East, the Middle East, the Near East

Use lower case for the following:

The eastern region, the western region, the east coast (or east coast as a modifier), the west coast (or west coast as a modifier), central Europe, south Germany, the bay area.

Title use versus descriptive:

Use Metropolitan Los Angeles, but the Los Angeles metropolitan area.

Use upper case for a title preceding or following a name:

President Berkowitz
Dan Berkowitz, President of the Tom of Finland Foundation

Durk Dehner, Director & Cofounder
Director Durk Dehner cofounded the Foundation with Tom
Mike Goldie, Chief Financial Officer or CFO

Also use upper case when a title refers to a specific individual (or specific individuals):

The Director, the Foundation Directors, the Chairman, the President

Use lower case for generic titles:

The Chairman called the meeting to order but a function of a chairman is to call meetings to order.

Do not capitalize names of the seasons:

The fall, autumn, winter, spring, or summer.

Capitalize words that refer to racial or ethnic groups:

Our focus is on determining why this we reach more Whites than Blacks.

Capitalize the following words:

Tom of Finland Foundation Permanent Collection or our Permanent Collection.
Tom of Finland Foundation Archives or our Archives.
Nation (as a synonym for United States).
State (when it follows the name of a state):

Washington State apples but the state of Ohio or home state.

Posted 08/05/2005
Form: Copyright

Images included with Press Releases should use something like:

These images(s) may only be used in editorial conjunction with the direct promotion of Tom of Finland Foundation events. No other rights are granted. All rights reserved.

When presented with artwork, we include the year the work was originally completed through the current year.

© 1982 - 2009 Tom of Finland Foundation

Copyright 1982 - 2009 Tom of Finland Foundation

TOM OF FINLAND, (Finnish, 1920 – 1991), Untitled, 1988, Graphite on paper, 11” x 17”, Gift from artist, Tom of Finland Foundation Permanent Collection # 88-77, © 1988 - 2009 Tom of Finland Foundation

Posted 05/30/2006
Updated 02/16/2009
Form: Commas, Semicolons and Colons

Use commas to separate independent clauses when they are joined by any of these seven coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet.

The benefit was over, but the crowd refused to leave.

Use commas after introductory clauses, phrases, or words that come before the main clause. Common starter words for introductory clauses that should be followed by a comma include: after, although, as, because, if, since, when, while.

While I was eating, Tigger scratched at the door.

Common introductory words that should be followed by a comma include: yes, however, well.

Well, perhaps the volunteer meant no harm.

Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to set off clauses, phrases, and words that are not essential to the meaning of the sentence.

In addition to using a semicolon to join related independent clauses in compound sentences, you can use a semicolon to separate items in a series if the elements of the series already include commas.

Members of the committee include Dan, president; Durk, director; and Daniel, administrator.

Use a colon after a complete statement in order to introduce one or more directly related ideas, such as a series of directions, a list, or a quotation or other comment illustrating or explaining the statement.

The newletter contains four sections: announcements, art, events and features.

In a business letter greeting.

Dear Ms. Winstead:

Between the hour and minutes in time notation.

5:30 PM

Posted 05/13/2005
Form: Hyphens, Em dashes and En dashes

The hyphen is the shortest of the three and is used most commonly to combine words (compounds such as "well-being" and "advanced-level", for example) and to separate numbers that are not inclusive (Social Security numbers, for example).


The en dash is slightly longer than the hyphen but not as long as the em dash. (It is, in fact, the width of a typesetter's letter "N", whereas the em dash is the width of the letter "M", thus their names.) The en dash means, quite simply, "through". We use it most commonly to indicate inclusive dates and numbers:

July 9 – August 17; pp. 37 – 59.

The em dash is the mark of punctuation most of us think of when we hear the term '"dash" in regard to a sentence. It is significantly longer than the hyphen. We use the em dash to create a strong break in the structure of a sentence. Dashes can be used in pairs like parentheses — that is, to enclose a word, or a phrase, or a clause — or they can be used alone to detach one end of a sentence from the main body. Dashes are particularly useful in a sentence that is long and complex or in one that has a number of commas within it.

When using the hyphen we do not use a space before or after the hyphen. For the en dash, or the em dash, our convention is to place a space before and after them.

Posted 05/13/2005
Form: Quotations, Parantheses, Brackets, Italics

Use parentheses to set off explanatory information that does not have a close relationship to the rest of the sentence.

The argument between William and Edward (Meyers had already predicted the problem) centered around one crucial point in the agenda.

Use brackets to enclose editorial comments, corrections, or explanations.

Many of them [the owners] questioned the use of the facility for recreational purposes.

When parentheses or brackets enclose an independent sentence, place the period inside. When the enclosed matter is part of another sentence, place the period outside the parentheses.

The artist redid the drawing. (I saw it myself.)

The artist redid the drawing (the one with two figures).

There are two distinct styles used for quotations. Both are correct. Basically speaking, when punctuating quoted passages, put punctuation where it belongs, inside or outside the quotation marks — depending on the meaning — not rigidly within the quotation marks. This follows the rules for parentheses and brackets. It is accepted by many authors and scholars; in legal and technical writing; and abroad. What is important is that there be consistency within the piece (e.g., letter, announcement, article) being written.

Place periods and commas outside quotation marks if the period or comma does not refer to the quoted text. Place punctuation inside the quotation if it is a part of the sentence or phrase.

He asked me, "Do you have the time?".

Can you believe Sharon had the gall to say, "I've never seen you before in my life"?

Roger said, "I just got back".

Dan called me "helpful", but I think he was only kidding.

A colon or semicolon is always placed outside quotation marks.

Within Dehner's book, three themes can be found in the chapter, "Making of Fine Art": color, technique, and composition.

Double quotation marks enclose quotations, and single quotation marks enclose quotations within quotations.

The reporter for the Dispatch explained, "When I talked to the Furmans, they said, 'Is that all there is?', laughingly".

NOTE: Quotations of more than four lines should be set off from the text, indented on left and right margins, and should not be enclosed in quotation marks. End the sentence in your text that comes immediately before the quotation with a colon.

Double quotation marks may be used to signify a special term or word, to introduce unfamiliar concepts or to indicate a word or phrase that is used in other than its literal sense (e.g., slang or a word used ironically). They are used only in the first reference and the period is placed outside the quotation marks.

Sharp was not familiar with the concept of "flexibility".

In public speaking, they never used the "F" word.

The "wet" paint was applied weeks ago!

The first letter of a quotation may be changed to a capital or lowercase letter to make a quotation fit the syntax of the text in which it is being used.

Italics are used for for emphasis, unfamiliar foreign words or phrases and for technical terms followed by definitions. (On first use only.)

He said je ne sais pas.

She discovered a menage a trois. [Familiar expression — not italicised.]

Printers have begun to be concerned about polychlorinated biphenyls, poisonous compounds used by many companies.

Posted 05/13/2005
Logos: Finnish Flag

The Consulate Generale of Finland's promotional departrment says that the blue to use for the Finnish flag is PMS 294C (Pantone).

CMYK-tones: Blue C 100%, M 56%, Y 0%, K 18.5%
Hex #005A9C

Sample (PNG format)

Posted 08/20/2005
Logos: Tag Line (slogan)

For the year of 2005 our tag line — that typically appears on our announcements, news/press mailings and promotional materials — reads:

20 Years of Dedication to Protecting, Preserving and Promoting Erotic Art

For 2006 and onward, we are using:

Over Two Decades of Dedication to Protecting, Preserving, and Promoting Erotic Art

At our 25th...

A Quarter Century of Dedication to Protecting, Preserving, and Promoting Erotic Art

Updated 01/10/2006
Posted 05/29/2005
Logos: "Tom of Finland Foundation"

There are two common styles for the logo, and we'll be posting them sometime in the future.

The Foundation's name for most promotional materials should appear in the typeface Times New Roman (or Times Roman). As Times New Roman does not always work at very small type sizes, there are exceptions.

When an "official logo" (see our forthcoming Logos Page) is inappropriate due to added drop shadows, background color or other artistic considerations, we try to proportion the type similar to the logo at the top of this page. In short, the name appears in all capital letters with a slight increase in point size for the first character in each word except for "of".


Posted 04/18/2005
Names: Events, Titles and Abbreviations

For official event names and abbreviations, check our Events Directory.
For additional projects, check our Projects Page.
Capitalize and spell out titles such as president and director when they precede a name. Use lower case elsewhere.

President Dan Berkowitz
Durk Dehner, cofounder and director

Publications are in italic. Chapters/articles are in quotation marks..

Dispatch [the name of our printed newsletter]
Dispatch e-news or e-news [the name of our semimonthly newsletter]

I read "Changing Places" by Larry Shoo in the Dispatch.
I read "Changing Places" by Larry Shoo in the Dispatch e-news.
I read "Changing Places" by Larry Shoo in the e-news.

Titles of works of art and exhibitions should appear in italic. Subtitles can be separated by a colon in text, or a second line in a smaller typeface for display purposes.

Peter's piece The Begging was shown at the exhibit Pop Goes the Weasel presented by the museum.

Francis Turner: A Retropective was a hit with the public.

Francis Turner
A Retrospective

Posted 04/18/2005
Names: Military Phoenetic Alphabet
A: Alpha M: Mike Y: Yankee
B: Bravo N: November Z: Zulu
C: Charlie O: Oscar 1: Wun
D: Delta P: Papa 2: Too
E: Echo Q: Quebec 3: Tree
F: Foxtrot R: Romeo 4: Fower
G: Golf S: Sierra 5: Fife
H: Hotel T: Tango 6: Siks
I: India U: Uniform 7: Seven
J: Juliet V: Victor 8: Ait
K: Kilo W: Whiskey 9: Niner
L: Lima X: X-Ray 0: Zeero
Posted 09/24/2008
Names: Tom of Finland Foundation

Our official name is "Tom of Finland Foundation" and not "The Tom of Finland Foundation".

This can be ackward when writing text, so a lower case "the" before the Foundation's name is our norm. (Except when it starts a sentence where "The" is just good grandma).

In articles and other materials where it has been established that we are speaking about the Tom of Finland Foundation, the name may be shortened to "Foundation" with a capital "F". The official abbreviation for the Tom of Finland Foundation is "ToFF".

For promotional graphics, our preferred style drops any "the".

For over 20 years, The Tom of Finland Foundation... [incorrect text]
For over 20 years, the Tom of Finland Foundation... [correct text]

The donor gave the foundation six watercolors... [incorrect capitalization]
The donor gave the Foundation six watercolors... [correct capitalization]

[incorrect promotional graphics]

[correct promotional graphics]

The Tom of Finland Foundation's offices, storage & working areas and exhibition space is located in a house on Laveta Terrace in the Echo Park neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. This residence is owned by Durk Dehner and the Foundation rents rooms from Dehner. It was here that Tom of Finland lived and worked while in L.A.

Informally, and for insiders the facility may be refered to as "HQ".

The meeting is to take place at HQ at 10:00 AM.

You may also see,

The boxes were shipped to Laveta.

For public and official usage, it is standard to use "ToFF House" (no periods) or shortened to "House".

The reception will be held at the ToFF House. The House will be decorated for the season.

Revised for ToFF House 05/30/2006
Posted 04/18/2005
Names: Website & E-mail

Internet protocol uses all lower case letters for website names and e-mail addresses. Fortunately, all web browsers and e-mail programs handle this detail and automatically convert to lower case. That means that our materials can focus on legibility by capitalizing each "word". [incorrect] [correct] [also correct, as the "www." is not required for our web server] [incorrect] [correct]

Posted 04/18/2005
Numbers: Currency

When ToFF lists artwork for sale (in print or on the web) the trailing decimals are dropped as is the decimal point so prices are shown as:


or, if needed


When ToFF lists the value of artwork (on invoices or inventories, e.g.):




These are a few currency symbols that are most likely to be used:

$ - dollar
£ - pound
€ - euro
¥ - yen

However, they are not always unique identifiers for a particular currency. All monetary denominations not listed above should be prefixed with a currency code instead of using a symbol*.

For the euro (€3,50) and the yen (¥350), you may freely use the symbol instead of using a code but for the $ (dollar) and £ (pound), further clarification may be necessary.

$ - Use of the dollar symbol

For dollars, only the "$" is used. Please do not use the cent symbol (¢) or use cents as part of the price of artwork.

For tax, banking and accounting purposes, one dollar and twenty-five cents should be written as: "$1.25" and twenty-five cents should be written as: "$0.25" and not "25¢".

Since the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and many other countries all use dollars, it is important to label the type of dollar referenced. Sample dollar notation is as follows:

Australia "A$1.25
Canada "C$1.25
New Zealand "NZ$1.25
United States "US$1.25

£ - Use of the pound symbol

There are a number of countries whose currency is the pound. Among those, only the pound sterling (GBP), the currency of the United Kingdom and Crown dependencies, is consistently associated with pound sign (£). Occasionally, it is used to refer to the Egyptian pound (EGP350.00)*. Amounts in pound sterling, can be referred to using only the "£" symbol — you should be able to find the character in the Symbols insert box under the Insert menu in MS Word.

One pound, twenty-five is written as: £1.25 .
Twenty-five pence is written as: £0.25 (do not use the notation "p").

Therefore, there is no need to further distinguish the pound sterling (GBP) from other forms of currency. It is assumed that when "pound" or the pound sign (£) are used, the amounts are in GBP unless otherwise noted.

€ - Use of the euro symbol

The euro is becoming more common. To denote euro, use only the euro sign (€). Do not use the cent symbol. If you cannot find the euro symbol on your keyboard (Symbols under Insert), you may cut and paste it from this page.

Note, the plural of "euro" is officially "euro"; while the pluralization "euros" is commonly found, it is inaccurate. Avoid reference to euro cent.

Two euro and twenty-five cent is written as: €2.25.
Twenty-five euro cent is written as: €0.25.

Posted 01/28/2009
Numbers: General

Numbers from zero to twelve are spelled out.
Numbers 13 and over use Arabic numerals.

Over 10 artists exhibited their artwork. [incorrect]
Over ten artists exhibited their artwork. [correct]

Only people eighteen and older can attend. [incorrect]
Only people 18 and older can attend. [correct]

Posted 04/18/2005
Numbers: Nonprofit 501(c)(3)

In the IRS chart the classification is listed as 501(c)(3).

The Internal Revenue Code Section 501(c)(3) public charity or private foundation, which is established for purposes that are religious, educational, charitable, scientific, literary, testing for public safety, fostering of national or international amateur sports, or prevention of cruelty to animals and children. There are also IRC Section 501(c)(4) through 501(c)(27) organizations that are considered tax-exempt, but not charitable. Examples include trade associations, social clubs and certain advocacy organizations involved in substantial political lobbying activity.

The Foundation is very appreciative for your continued support and assistance in the furtherance of our goals. The Foundation is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) Educational Archive, so your donation is deductible to the extent allowed by law.

Posted 06/23/2005

Numbers: Telephone

When presenting telephone numbers, our convention is to use periods instead of dashes and/or parenthesis.

(213) 250-1685 [incorrect]
213.250.1685 [correct]

Posted 04/18/2005
Numbers: Time, Date & Year Representations

Times are represented as "AM" and "PM" without periods. If convenient, the letters may be slightly reduced in size to de-emphasise them.

The event will start at 8:00 PM. [preferred]
The event will start at 8:00 PM. [also correct]

Dates for public presentation are generally represented in month/day/year format, with the month spelled out, a space, the day in digits, a comma, a space and then a four digit year. This is to help eliminate confusion for people not used to this American convention.

Space requirements, dates presented in a list, or other special considerations (like the posting dates on this page or our Calendar Pages) allow for flexibility. When presenting dates in a list, use a leading zero for days and months of one digit.

Years are usually represented with all four digits.

Decades do not use an apostrophe before the "s", but for style reasons may be shown as a contraction.

Our big event is 5/8/05 [incorrect]
Our big event is May 8, 2005 [correct]

Workshops will be held:
2/2/05 [incorrect list usage]
[incorrect list usage]
[incorrect list usage]

Workshops will be held:
02/02/2005 [correct list usage]
[correct list usage]
[correct list usage]

The 1990's saw major growth. [incorrect]
The 1990s saw major growth. [correct]

The 90's saw major growth. [incorrect]
The '90s saw major growth. [correct]

A numerical designation of a period is lowercased unless it is part of a proper name:

eighteenth century
the seventeen hundreds
the twenties
quattrocento (fifteenth century)
Eighteenth Dynasty (but Sung dynasty)
the period of the Fourth Republic

Posted 04/18/2005
Updated 02/06/2009
Text & Font Usage

As Times New Roman is used for the Foundation logo, we prefer that text be presented in a non-serifed — but easy to read font — such as Arial, Helvetica or Geneva.
Posted 04/18/2005